This report aims to present the outcomes of simulations conducted using the BELLHOP and KRAKEN models, integrated into the modeling portal (http://jump-app.lnec.pt/index/), and utilizing Copernicus oceanographic modeling data. The simulations encompassed multiple scenarios for each campaign conducted during the project, including those in Aveiro during spring and autumn, and in the Algarve during spring and autumn. Furthermore, the simulations specifically focused on the decay of acoustic pressure (Transmission Loss - TL) and the measurement of acoustic pressure (Sound Pressure Level - SPL).
Deliverable 4.1 - Review of the state-of-the-art and selection of the acoustic propagation models to be used in the jUMP project
This report aims to present a brief review of the state of the art of marine numerical acoustic models and support the choice of two models, Bellhop and Kraken, which will be implemented in the modeling portal developed during the project. The acoustic modeling portal will be one of the results of the project and will be freely available to all scientific communities for research purposes. This report corresponds to the first stage of developing an appropriate modeling portal to support coastal managers, policymakers and the scientific community in the study of thematic descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
This report presents the results obtained from measurements of ambient noise on the Portuguese coast in two different places of economic importance, marine biodiversity and conservation: in the coastal zone of Aveiro and around the Ria Formosa. Measurements of noise levels were carried out through a monitoring program based on acoustic snapshots and during different seasons of the year, in winter/autumn and spring/summer. Two different underwater noise measurement systems were used: a system fixed to the bottom (consisting of 3 PAM stations) and a system based on the surface.
This review presents best practices guidelines for measuring and monitoring underwater noise to meet the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requirements. Throughout this deliverable, different types of noise measurement equipment, various methodologies and systems for obtaining acoustical data, data processing, and appropriate metrics for reporting noise levels are discussed. The recommended methodologies are described for both continuous and impulsive noise monitoring to ensure adequate data collection for policy making and conservation management.
Regulatory requirements reflect the increasing need to monitor underwater noise due to the growing pressure of anthropogenic activities in the ocean and their risk to sea life. The present recommendations highlight the best practices and identify some uncertainties and ambiguities of noise measurement as well as their solutions.
In addition, a number of projects involving monitoring underwater noise in Europe and contributing to the fulfilment of the MFSD requirements are also discussed.
This report reflects a review carried out on the existing information regarding the Portuguese context related to the occurrence of sensitive species, the main anthropogenic activities, and studies carried out for the collection of acoustic data.
This deliverable aims to review the regulatory framework for underwater noise at different levels focusing on those which more directly may have an impact on underwater noise management in Portuguese waters. It reviews Regional Sea Conventions relevant work, European Union Directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and recommendations issued by international bodies, as for example the ones provided by the International Maritime Organization.
Most of the recommendations reviewed results from the need to protect the marine environment, recognizing underwater noise as a marine pollutant with potential to affect the marine environment. Guidelines and recommendations, although not mandatory, play an important role by providing a relevant framework on underwater noise management both on assessing impacts, and proposing noise reduction and mitigation measures.
At National level there is no specific legal framework for underwater noise management. However, this can be addressed under relevant legislation for environmental impact assessment and marine spatial planning. Raising awareness activities about impacts and monitoring can play an important role on better-informed requirements and decisions.